Sources: Key Texts

India: Malabar/Kerala
  • Benaseer, V. I. “Tradition versus text: A study of the matrilineal system of Malabar with special reference to Mappila matriliny, 1871-1939”. MPhil thesis, Jawaharlal Nehru University, 2005. 
  • Fathima, T. "Matriliny favours women Reality or myth: A comparative study of the socio cultural status of Mappila Muslim Women in Matrilineal and Patrilineal families of Malabar". Ph.D. diss., Mahatma Gandhi University, 2014. (
  • Kottakkunnummal, Manaf. "Indigenous Customs and Colonial Law: Contestations in Religion, Gender, and Family Among Matrilineal Mappila Muslims in Colonial Malabar, Kerala, c. 1910-1928" SAGE Open 2014: 1–12. (
  • Malieckal, Bindu.  “Muslims, Matriliny, and A Midsummer Night's Dream: European Encounters with the Mappilas of Malabar, India” The Muslim World 95 no. 2 (2005): 297-316.
  • Mohamad, NP Hafiz. “Socioeconomic determinants of the continuity of matrilocal family system among Mappila Muslims of Malabar” Ph.D. diss., University of Calicut, 2010. (
    • Osella, Caroline. “Desires under reform: contemporary reconfigurations of family, marriage, love, and gendering in a transnational South Indian matrilineal Muslim community.” Culture and religion, vol. 13, no. 2 (2012), 241-264
    • Sebastian, Aleena. “Matrilineal Practices among Koyas of Kozhikode.” M.Phil. dissertation, University of Hyderabad, 2013.
    • Shukkur, Sheena. “Scope and application of the muslim family law in Kerala and Lakshadweep a study of legislative provisions and distinct local laws” Ph.D. diss., The Tamilnadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, 2007 (
    India: Lakshadweep Islands
    • Dube, Leela. Matriliny and Islam: Religion and Society in the Laccadives (Delhi: National Publishing House, 1969).
    • Forbes, Andrew D W. Studies in Indian Ocean Islam: caste and matriliny in the Laccadive Islands (London: Routledge, 1978.)
      • Kumar, V Vijaya. Traditional futures: law and custom in India's Lakshadweep Islands (New Delhi; New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.)
      • Kutty, Abdul Rahman, Marriage and Kinship in an Island Society (Delhi: National Publishing House, 1972).
      • Shukkur, Sheena. “Scope and application of Muslim family law in Kerala and Lakshadweep a study of legislative provisions and distinct local laws” Ph.D. diss., The Tamilnadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, 2007 ( 
      Sri Lanka
      • McGilvray, Dennis B. Crucible of Conflict: Tamil and Muslim society on the east coast of Sri Lanka (Durham: Duke University Press, 2008.)
      • Ruwanpura, Kanchana N. Matrilineal communities, patriarchal realities: a feminist Nirvana uncovered (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006.)

      • Josselin de Jong, P. E. "Islam versus Adat in Negri Sembilan (Malaya)", Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-, and Volkenkunde 116 (1960): 158–203.
      • McAllister, Carol Lynn. “Matriliny, Islam, and capitalism: combined and uneven development in the lives of Negri Sembilan women”. Ph. D. diss., University of Pittsburgh, 1987.
      • Peletz, Michael. A Share of the Harvest: Kinship, Property, and Social History among the Malays of Rembau (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988).

      • Blanchy, Sophie. "A matrilineal and matrilocal Muslim society in flux: negotiating gender and family relations in the Comoros". Africa, vol. 89, no. 1 (2019): 21-39.
      • Blanchy, Sophie. "Beyond 'great marriage': collective involvement, personal achievement and social change in Ngazidja (Comoros)", Journal of Eastern African Studies, vol. 7, no. 4 (2013): 569–87.
      • Blanchy, Sophie. ‘Etre père en société matrilinéaire: le cas de Ngazidja (Comores)’ in Latchoumanin, M. and Malbert, T. (eds),Familles et parentalité: rôles et fonctions entre tradition et modernité. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2007.
      • Blanchy, Sophie. Maisons des femmes, cités des hommes: filiation, âge et pouvoir à Ngazidja (Comores). Nanterre: Société d'Ethnologie, 2010.
      • Damir, B. A., Boulinier, G. and Ottino, P. Traditions d'une lignée royale des ComoresParis: L'Harmattan, 1985.
      • Shepherd, G. M. "Two marriage forms in the Comoro islands: an investigation", Africa 44, no. 4 (1977): 344–59.
      • Walker, Iain.  "Marrying at home, marrying away: customary marriages and legal marriages in Ngazidja and in the diaspora" in Charsley, K. (ed.), Transnational Marriage: new perspectives from Europe and beyond. London: Routledge, 2012.
      • Benda-Beckmann, Franz von and Keebet von Benda-Beckmann, “Islamic Law in a Plural Context: The Struggle over Inheritance Law in Colonial West Sumatra,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, vol. 55 nos. 4-5 (2012): 771-793. 
      • Frey, Katherine Stenger. Journey to the land of the earth goddess (Jakarta, Indonesia: Gramedia Pub. Division, 1986).
        • Hadler, Jeffrey. Muslims and matriarchs: cultural resilience in Indonesia through jihad and colonialism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008).
        • Heider, Karl G. Landscapes of emotion: mapping three cultures of emotion in Indonesia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991). 
        • Huda, Yasrul. "Contesting sharia : state law, decentralization and Minangkabau custom", PhD diss., Leiden University, 2013.
        • Sanday, Peggy R. Women at the Center: Life in a Modern Matriarchy (Ithaca: Cornel University Press, 2002).
        • Selinaswati, "A paradox of women representatives in a Muslim patriarchy and matrilineal society in West Sumatra, Indonesia," M.A. thesis, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2007.

        • Arnfred, Signe. Sexuality & gender politics in Mozambique: rethinking gender in Africa (Suffolk, United Kingdom: James Currey; Rochester, New York: Boydell & Brewer, 2014).
        • Bonate, Liazzat. “Matriliny, Islam and gender in northern Mozambique,” Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 36, no. 2: 139-166.

        • Bone, David S. Malawi's Muslims: Historical Perspectives (Blantyre, Malawi: Christian Literature Association in Malawi, 2000).
        • Edward A. Alpers, ‘Towards a History of the Expansion of Islam in East Africa, the Matrilineal Peoples of the Southern Interior’, in The Historical Study of African Religion, eds T. O. Ranger and I. N. Kimambo, London: Heinemann 1972, pp. 185–186.

        • Manager, Leif O. From the mountains to the plains: the integration of the Lafofa Nuba into Sudanese society (Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1994). 
        • Delmet, Christian. "Islamisation et matrilinéarité au Dar Fung (Soudan)," L'Homme, vol. 19 no. 2 (1979): 33-51.

        • BEIDELMAN, T. O. The Matrilineal Peoples of Eastern Tanzania (Zaramo, Luguru, Kaguru, Ngulu, etc.).  (London: International African Institute, 1967).

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